Sacred mountains in Neá Skíti

Athos

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Athos (grikskt): Όρος Άθως (Oros Athos)er eitt fjall og ein hálvoyggj í Makedónia í Grikkalandi. Athos er á listanum yvir heimsarvar hjá UNESCO (World Heritage Sites). Athos er eisini ein sjálvstýrandi tjóð í tí griksku tjóðini. Her eru 20 orthodoks klostur á Athos, sum hoyra beinleiðis undir økið hjá patriarkinum í Konstantinopel. Í dag nevna grikkar Fjallið Athos fyri Agion Oros (á grikskum: Άγιον Όρος), sum merkir Heilaga Fjallið. Bert menn sleppa at búgva har. Athos bleiv stovnað í 963 og er eitt sjálvstøðugt land, sum formliga hoyrir undir Grikkaland. Í 2001 var fólkatalið á Athos 2.262. Í einstøkum klostrum búgva fyrst og fremst munkar úr Russlandi, Serbia, Bulgaria og Rumenia.

Jarðfrøði, søga og atgongd til hálvoynna

Hálvoyggin Athos er tann triði "armurin" á hálvoynni Halkidiki. Hálvoyggin er 50 metrar long og gongur suður og norður, breiddin er millum 7 og 12 kilometrar. Hálvoyggin Athos er 335,6 km2 til støddar. Fjallið Athos er 2.033 metrar høgt. Havið kring Athos kann vera sera vandamikið at sigla á. Í fornu griksku søguni eru søgur um tveir skipaflotar, sum gingu burtur við Athos. Í 492 á.Kr. misti Darius, kongur av Persi, 300 skip undir Mardonius generali (Herodotus "Histories" book VI (Erato), Aeschylus "The Persians"). Í 411 á.Kr. mistu spartanarar ein flota við 50 skipum undir admiral Epicleas. (Diodorus Siculus, "Bibliotheca historica" XIII 41, 1–3). Sjálvt um hálvoyggin er landføst við Grikkaland, so ber bert til at koma til staðið við báti. Har eru tvær stórar ferjur, Agios Panteleimon og Axion Estin, sum sigla dagliga, um veðrið loyvir tí, millum Ouranoupolis og Dafni. Á vegnum leggja skipini at við nøkur klostur á vestustrondini. Har er eisini ein minni skjóttgangandi bátur, Agia Anna, sum siglir beinleiðis uttan støðg. Atgongdin til Athos er avmarkað, og menn skulu søkja um loyvi at sleppa til hálvoynna Athos, og so kunnu teir fáa loyvi eitt avmarkað tíðarskeið, men bert menn sum eru limir í eysturortoksu kirkjuni kunnu fáa loyvi til at búgva á staðnum, og tá kunnu teir virka har antin sum munkar ella sum arbeiðsmenn.

20 klostur

Listi yvir tey 20 klostrini á Athos:

  1. Stóra Lavra klostrið (Μεγίστη Λαύρα, Megísti Lávra, Stóra Lavra)
  2. Vatopedi klostrið (Βατοπέδι ella Βατοπαίδι)
  3. Iviron klostrið (Ιβήρων; ივერთა მონასტერი, iverta monasteri) – bygt av georgiarum.
  4. Helandariou klostrið (Χιλανδαρίου, Chilandariou;Хиландар) – Serbisk Ortodoks
  5. Dionysiou klostrið (Διονυσίου)
  6. Koutloumousiou klostrið (Κουτλουμούσι)
  7. Pantokratoros klostrið (Παντοκράτορος, Pantokratoros)
  8. Xiropotamou klostrið (Ξηροποτάμου)
  9. Zografou monastery (Ζωγράφου; Зограф) – Bulgarskt Ortodoks
  10. Dochiariou klostrið (Δοχειαρίου)
  11. Karakalou klostrið (Καρακάλλου)
  12. Filotheou klostrið (Φιλοθέου)
  13. Simonos Petras klostrið (Σίμωνος Πέτρα ella Σιμωνόπετρα)
  14. Agiou Pavlou klostrið (Αγίου Παύλου, Agiou Pavlou, Sankta Paulus)
  15. Stavronikita klostrið (Σταυρονικήτα)
  16. Xenophontos klostrið (Ξενοφώντος)
  17. Osiou Grigoriou klostrið (Οσίου Γρηγορίου, Venerable Gregory)
  18. Esphigmenou klostrið (Εσφιγμένου)
  19. Agiou Panteleimonos klostrið (Αγίου Παντελεήμονος, Sankta Pantelemon; Пантелеймонов; ella Ρωσικόν, Rossikon) – Russiskt Ortodoks
  20. Konstamonitou klostrið (Κωνσταμονίτου)

Bókmentir um Athos

Frágreiðing á enskum.

  • The 6,000 Beards of Mount Athos ISBN 0-85955-251-9 by Ralph H. Brewster. A guide to the peninsula, first published in 1935, detailing the landscape, monasteries, skites, and the life of the inhabitants, including customs and more not usually discussed.
  • Mount Athos ISBN 960-213-075-X by Sotiris Kadas. An illustrated guide to the monasteries and their history (Athens 1998). With many illustrations of the Byzantine art treasures on Mount Athos.
  • Athos The Holy Mountain by Sydney Loch. Published 1957 & 1971 (Librairie Molho, Thessaloniki). Loch spent most of his life in the Byzantine tower at Ouranopolis, close to Athos, and describes his numerous visits to the Holy Mountain. A fascinating travelogue. The famous Molho Bookstore in Thessaloniki may have a few copies left.
  • Dare to be Free ISBN 0-330-10629-5 by Walter Babington Thomas. Offers insights into the lives of the monks of Mt Athos during World War II, from the point of view of an escaped POW who spent a year on the peninsula evading capture.
  • Blue Guide: Greece ISBN 0-393-30372-1, pp. 600–03. Offers history and tourist information.
  • Mount Athos Renewal in Paradise ISBN 0-300-10323-9, by Graham Speake. An extensive book about Athos in the past, the present and the future. Includes valuable tourist information. Features numerous full-color photographs of the peninsula and daily life in the monasteries.
  • From The Holy Mountain by William Dalrymple. ISBN 0-8050-6177-0 Published 1997. A fascinating journey that begins from and constantly refers back to Mount Athos.
  • Ivanov, Emil: Das Bildprogramm des Narthex im Rila-Kloster in Bulgarien unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Wasserweihezyklen auf dem Athos, Diss., Erlangen, 2002.
  • Ivanov, Emil: Apokallypsedarstellungen in der nachbyzantinischen Kunst, in: Das Münster, 3, 2002, 208-217.

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Visit Greece
16 September 2011
The Holy Mountain is the entire third, eastern peninsula of Halkidiki. It is the only place in Greece that is completely dedicated to prayer and worship of God. A monastic community lives there.
The West Wing
23 September 2011
Mount Athos the spiritual centre of the Orthodox world and on the development of religious architecture and monumental painting. A World Heritage Monument of Unesco
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5.4km from Unnamed Road, Agio Oros 630 86, Greece

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